Whole note (semibreve)
A whole note fills an entire bar. In 4/4 a whole note refers to 4 beats. The note is symbolized by a hollow oval and the rest is notated as a filled-in rectangle bar hanging from the bottom of a stave line.
Half note (minim)
A half note is half the length of a whole note. It is represented by a hollow oval with a stem. A half rest is the same symbol as a whole note rest, but it sits on top of a stave line.
Quarter note (crochet)
A quarter note is quarter the length of a whole note. In 4/4 timing it represents one beat of a whole bar. The rest is notated as a squiggle which can be seen in the picture above.
Eighth note (quaver)
An eighth note is half the length of a quarter note and an eighth of a whole note. It looks the same as a quarter note, but with a hook at the top of the stem. The rest is notated by a solid oval with a curved downwards pointing stem.
Sixteenth note (semi quaver)
A sixteenth note is half the length of an eighth note and a sixteenth of a whole note. It is a quarter note symbol, but with two hooks on its stem. The rest is the same as an eighth note rest, except it has two solid ovals on the stem rather than one.