If a researcher conducting an experiment shakes his head no or nods his head yes eliciting a change in a response from the test subject, the researcher is exhibiting which phenomenon? A. Researcher bias B. Experimental bias C. Control bias

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Joseph Russell answered
It is very hard for a researcher conducting an experiment to keep his bias from affecting the result of an experiment. Experimental bias refers to the process of selecting subjects that are much more likely to get the result the researcher desires. Control bias is the process of manipulating data to get the result the researcher wishes.  Researcher bias is the use of subtle signals or other manipulation to get the subject to respond in the way the researcher wishes, so the answer to this question is C, control bias, and the results of his experiment will be skewed in one way or another.

Bias can occur in many stages of an experiment, and scientists and researchers must be very vigilant not to let any of these things happen if they want the results of their experiment be valid. David Sackett in 1979 published a book which documented seven different ways in which clinical studies can be biased. 

Bias can be introduced in a clinical study in publishing results, interpreting the analysis, measuring outcomes, specifying and selecting the study sample, and reading up on the field to be studied. There can also be a bias when too small of a sample size is used in a clinical study. If any of these biases is allowed to be part of any study or scientific experiment, the results will almost always be wrong, and will most certainly be unreliable.

A good research project or experiment is screened by an independent party to make sure that no researcher bias, experimental bias, or control bias is present in the study. An experiment or study with a large sample size, minus all of the biases noted here, is much more likely to produce results that actually have value and reflect the real state of an issue.

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