Narrative basically means 'story', although it is more specifically used to describe the way the events in a story are portrayed. Narrative appears in many forms of modern art and entertainment, including works of speech, writing, song, film, television, video games, photography, and theatre.
Obvious elements and features that immediately spring to mind may include: Characters (the people that occupy your story), setting (where the majority of your story takes places), as well as the main events that take place in the story, driving the narrative forward. In visual medias such as film and television, narrative is conveyed to the audience through the considered use of camera angles and movement, lighting, sound, props. Shot framing and composition, design and layout and editing.
Many people have theorized on narrative, and one of the most famous examples is Todorov who, basing his findings on Russian folk tales, theorized that all narratives follow a basic three part structure, in which an equilibrium (state of peace) is shattered by an event, throwing the narrative into disequilibrium, which must be resolved back into an equilibrium by the characters of the story.
Vladamir Propp similarly theorized on Russian folk tales, and came to the conclusion that there are only a certain amount of character types that appear in any narratives. They can be identified in the following manner:
Protagonist (or Hero): Leads the narrative, is usually looking for something (a quest) or trying to solve something (a mystery).
Antagonist (or Villain): Gets in the protagonist's way.
Heroine: Usually some sort of prize or reward for the hero - if your hero is female, your heroine can be male.
Father: An authority figure who offers a reward to the hero for completing their quest. That reward might be a prince or a princess for example.
Helper: Helps the hero - often acts as a sidekick.
Donor: Gives the hero something - a clue, a talisman, a special power - which helps them complete their quest.
Mentor: Teaches and guides the hero.
Another theorist, Claude Levi-Strauss, reckoned that all narratives must be driven forward by a conflict caused by a series of opposing forces. This was to become know as Binary Opposition, and some examples of this are as follows: Light/dark, good/evil, noise/silence, youth/age, right/wrong, and poverty/wealth.
Try applying the above ideas to the stories of your favorite films or books, and see how well they fit.